The smallest country in the world is Vatican city. This city was founded on the 11 February, 1929 following the signing of Lateran pacts between the Holy See and Italy. It is situated on the western bank of the Tiber River, Vatican City's 2-mile border is landlocked by Italy.
Vatican city is an independent state which is surrounded by the city of Rome ( an enclave within Rome, Italy. It measures just 0.2square miles, almost 120 times smaller than the island of Manhattan. This country is governed by an absolute monarchy with the Pope being its head which is the Bishop of Rome. This Pope is elected by the College of cardinals during a Papal conclave. The official name it has is "State of the Vatican City" with a population of 800 as at 2103. The political form of government practiced there is "Papacy".
A unique collection of artistic and architectural masterpieces lie within the boundaries of this small state. Vatican City enclosed by its walls and open toward the city through Bernini’s colonnade of Saint Peter’s. The boundaries of the city-state contain masterpieces and living institutions that are a witness to the unique continuity of the crucial role played by this place in the history of mankind.
The Centre of Christianity since the foundation of Saint Peter’s Basilica by Constantine (4th century), and at a later stage the permanent seat of the Popes, the Vatican is at once the pre-eminently holy city for Catholics, an important archaeological site of the Roman world and one of the major cultural reference points of both Christians and non-Christians.
Vatican City is a city you will like to explore because of the ancient architectural works, Museum of 1400 rooms. Visit the Vatican gardens that occupy half of the Vatican City. It includes fountains, a cactus garden, and historical buildings.